The mere display of an armament can suffice to drive away the competition without engaging in a fight, hence saving energy. A similar strategy has been observed in the dunnock , a small bird. This strategy can be more effective because it may allow the male to engage in both extra-pair paternity and within-pair paternity. This would be an energetic cost towards both genders for the reason that instead of using the energy for reproduction, they are redirecting it towards ridding themselves of this illness. An adequate diet consisting of increased amounts of diet and sometimes more specific ratio in certain species will optimize sperm number and fertility. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January One evolutionary response to sperm competition is the variety in penis morphology of many species. These, and other, types of methods have the male playing defense by protecting his mate.
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