Many early Crookes tubes undoubtedly generated X-rays, because early researchers such as Ivan Pulyui had noticed that they could make foggy marks on nearby unexposed photographic plates. They were accelerated to a high velocity by the electric field between the electrodes, both because they did not lose energy to collisions, and also because Crookes tubes were operated at a higher voltage. When they strike atoms in the glass, they knock their orbital electrons into a higher energy level. Categories : Vacuum tube displays Historical scientific instruments Gas discharge lamps Particle accelerators. Archived from the original on He measured the ability of cathode rays to penetrate sheets of material, and found they could penetrate much farther than moving atoms could.
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